Johor, formerly known as Johore, is a state of Malaysia in the south of the Malay Peninsula. Johor has land borders with the Malaysian states of Pahang to the north and Malacca and Negeri Sembilan to the northwest. Johor shares maritime borders with Singapore to the south and Indonesia to both the west and east. Johor Bahru is the capital city and the economic centre of the state, Kota Iskandar is the seat of the state government, and Muar serves as the royal town of the state. The old state capital is Johor Lama. As of 2017, the state's population is 3,700,000. Johor has highly diverse tropical rainforests and an equatorial climate. The state's mountain ranges form part of the Titiwangsa Range, which is part of the larger Tenasserim Range connected to Thailand and Myanmar, with Mount Ophir being the highest point in Johor.
The jungles of Johor host a diverse array of plant and animal species, with an estimated 950 vertebrates species, comprising 200 mammals, 600 birds and 150 reptiles, along with 2,080 invertebrates species.The Endau-Rompin National Park is the largest national park in the state, covering an area of 48,905 hectares (120,847 acres) in northern Johor; its name comes from the Endau and Rompin rivers that flow through the park.There are two entry points for the park, one through Peta with an area of 19,562 hectares (48,339 acres) (about 40% of the total area) with entrance from Kahang in the Mersing District and the other at Kampung Selai with an area of 29,343 hectares (72,508 acres) (about 60% of the total area) with entrance from Bekok in Segamat District.Destinations in Peta including the Buaya Sangkut Waterfalls, Upeh Guling Waterfalls, Air Biru Lake, Janing Barat, Nature Education and Research Centre (NERC), Kuala Jasin and Peta indigenous village, while in Selai the area is mostly for hiking and jungle trekking.Some iconic mammal species inside the national park include the Asian elephant, clouded leopard, Malayan sun bear, Malayan tapir and Malayan tiger.
The state is linked to the other Malaysian states and federal territories on the western coast through the North–South Expressway and on the eastern coast through Malaysia Federal Route 3. Since British colonial times, there has been a road system linking Johor's capital in the southern Malay Peninsula to Kangar in the north and Kota Bharu on the east coast.The roads in Johor are classified into two categories; 2,369 kilometres (1,472 mi) are federal roads while 19,329 kilometres (12,010 mi) are state roads, as of 2016.Johor uses a dual carriageway with the left-hand traffic rule, and towns in the state provide public transportation services such as buses and taxis along with Grab services.
Rail transport in the state is operated by Keretapi Tanah Melayu, which consists of Batu Anam, Bekok, Chamek, Genuang, Johor Bahru Sentral Kempas Baru, Kluang, Kulai, Labis, Layang-Layang, Mengkibol, Paloh, Rengam, Senai and Tenang railway stations. The railway line is connected to all of the states in western Peninsular Malaysia. It is also connected to stations in Singapore and Thailand.
The Senai International Airport is the largest and the only international airport in Johor, which acts as the main gateway to the state. The airport is located in Senai Town, Kulai District. In 2016, the Malaysian federal government approved a total of RM7 million in upgrades for the airport.Four airlines fly to Johor: AirAsia, Malaysia Airlines, Firefly and Malindo Air.Other minor airports including Kluang Airport, Mersing Airport, Segamat Airstrip and Batu Pahat Airstrip in Kluang District, Mersing District, Segamat District and Batu Pahat District, respectively.
Johor has four ports in Iskandar Puteri and Pasir Gudang, which operate under three different companies. The Port of Tanjung Pelepas is part of the Malaysian federal container port,while another two container ports, Integrated Container Terminal (also in Tanjung Pelepas) and Johor Port (in Pasir Gudang).The Tanjung Langsat Terminal serves as the state regional oil and gas hub and supports offshore petroleum exploration and production.There are boat services to ports in Batam and Tanjung Pinang of the Bintan Islands in Indonesia and to port in Changi in Singapore.